The Bulletin of Vavilov Society of Geneticists and Breeders of Ukraine, Vol.11, N1

In this issue:

From the Editor-in-Chief

 

P.3-6

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Original papers

Cloning of cDNA of Arabidopsis thaliana catalase isoform Cat2 applying two-round PCR

Didenko N.O., Tynkevych Yu.O., Volkov R.A., Panchuk I.I.P.7-13

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Aim. Members of multigenic families are often highly homologous in the coding region, which makes it difficult to clone their individual cDNAs. The aim of the study was to develop a strategy that allows an efficient cloning of cDNA for such similar genes and to apply the strategy for cloning of catalase 2 (Cat2) cDNA of Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods. Sequences of catalase cDNAs were compared in order to find divergent regions suitable for design of gene-specific primers. Cat2 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned. Results. It was demonstrated that the cDNAs of three catalase genes of A. thaliana are highly similar at the 5’ and 3’ ends of the coding region. In contrast, the adjacent sequences of 5’ and 3’ UTR appeared to be divergent. Accordingly, a pair of gene-specific primers localized in the 5’ and 3’ UTR of Cat2 cDNA was designed and utilized for the first round of PCR amplification. The obtained PCR products were used as a template in the second round of PCR. The corresponding primers were located exactly at the start and stop codons of Cat2 cDNA and also contained as extensions additional restriction sites for subsequent cloning. Conclusions. Application of the two-round PCR strategy allows efficient cloning of individual cDNAs of closely related highly similar members of multigenic families.
Key words: soybean, features, variability, intervarietal hybrids, factor of variation, asymmetry.

Molecular organization of 5S rDNA of Solanum betaceum Cav.

Davidjuk Y.M., Moloda O.O., Volkov R.A. P.14-19

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Aims. 5S rDNA belongs to the class of tandemly arranged moderately repeated sequences and represents a useful tool for investigation of molecular alterations in eukaryotic genomes during the evolution. Especially, rapidly evolving intergenic spacer (IGS) can differ significantly even in closely related species. However, it remains still unclear if the mode of IGS evolution may change during speciation within the same taxonomic group. In order to clarify this question we have cloned and sequenced the 5S IGS of Solanum betaceum (subgenus Bassovia)and compared their molecular organization with that one of other Solanum species. Methods. The 5S rDNA repeated units were amplified by PCR, cloned in bacterial vector and sequenced. Results. It was shown that the IGS of 5S rDNA of S. betaceum has the length of 187 bp and contains subrepeats of several types found early in other Solanum species. Several short deletions occurred during the evolution of S. betaceum IGS, whereas amplification of subrepeats was the main mode of molecular evolution in subgenera Solanum and Leptostemonum.
Key words: Solanum, 5S rDNA, molecular evolution .

Features of forming the seed and fodder productivity components in Lupinus albus L.

Brodecka K.P. P.20-27

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Aims.Our work aimed at studying the details of forming seed and fodder Lupinus albus L. performance differing by various branching morpho-types and singling out of them the forms (variety-samples) promising by these characters for their further use as a starting breeding material. Methods. During the growing season were held phenological observations, morphological description of collections in accordance with the guidelines (International classifier SEMA of genus Lupinus L.). Results. As a result of collection variety-samples estimation by the individual productivity indices there were singled out 19 variety-samples of L. albus L. which weremost productive by above indices. Among them, 8 variety-samples with vegetation period of 105 days have been bred in this country by the Institute of Agriculture, are valuable as a starting material for generation of early ripening varieties and were passed to the examination into the National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, and are currently listed in the State Register eligible to spread along the territory of Ukraine. These are cultivars: Food, Olezhka, Vladimir, Borki, Fog, Veresneviy, Diet, Serpneviy, which are considered as the creation of early ripening varieties that show low content of alkaloids in grain and green mass, resistant to Fusarium ensuring from 1000 to 1500 of fodder protein per ha. Conclusions. Thus, the morphotype of medium-grown plants is more promising by the complex of economically valuable characters and may be advantageous as a starting material in breeding of white lupine early ripening varieties.
Key words: white lupine (Lupinus albus L.), seed yield, green mass.

Development of duplex PCR for detection of mycoplasmas and bovine viral diarrhea virus followed by pathogen genotyping

Gerilovych A.P., Goraichuk I.V., Bolotin V.I., Solodiankin O.S. P.28-33

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Aim. Aim is to develop duplex PCR and optimize amplification protocol for the simultaneous detecting of mycoplasma genetic material and virus diarrhea of cattle, with the possibility of further identification of the VDC pathogen genotype. Methods.We studied recombinant plasmid pTZ57R/T-VD, bearing insertion of Erns gene fragment from VDC pathogen genotype 1 (strain Ossloss) and genotype 2 (strain Kosice), as well as DNA samples of M. orale N-I, M. hyorhinis BTS-7and M. bovis PG45T reference strains. It was applied duplex and nested PCR. Results.In the course of the duplex PCR with optimized parameters when using primers P1/P2 and GPO-1/MGSO simultaneously in reaction amplification of positive control were formed amplicons of 826 bp for VDC and 715 bp for mycoplasma. As a result of nested PCR amplification were formed specific products of amplification of 223 bp for VDC of genotype 1 and 488 bp for VDC pathogen of genotype 2. Conclusions.During the ongoing work have been developed and optimized parameters of duplex PCR carrying out for the simultaneous indication of the genetic material represented by the class Mollicutes and VDC pathogen, with the possibility of nested PCR for further identification of VDC genotypes.
Key words:micoplasma, VDC, duplex PCR, nested PCR.

Improving selection in pure line of winter wheat and in clone of tradescantia

Delone N.L. P.34-38

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Aim. Aim is to demonstrate examples of improving selection in the pure lines of winter wheat and Tradescantia clone. Methods, Selection methods were used. Results. Lines of PPG186/1 cultivar, derived from the PPG186 GD variety of Lapchenko selection that exceeds the parent in the growth characteristics (number of spikelets per spike, plant height and tillering) and "C”clone of Tradescantia paludosa, selected from a "Sachs No 5" clone were generated. This clone is superior to all of our breeding clones by tillering and height of shoots. Conclusions. In the pure lines it may be possible not only stabilizing, supporting selection, but also improving one that in plant breeding can have its advantages as there it is improved the already good cultivar, while the hybridization may introduce except for economically valuable genes yet undesirable genes of parent. The above data support the multi-year studies of L.N. Delone and his propaganda for use of selection in pure lines.
Key words: silent genes, mute genes, heterochromatization.

Some aspects of genetic instability in human somatic cells under the combined action of ionizing radiation and nitric oxide

Dyomina E.A. P.39-45

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Aim. Aim is to study the particular aspects of genetic instability in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the combined effects of ionizing radiation and nitric oxide. Methods. We used the test-system culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of conditionally healthy individuals (46 cases), who were informed about the purpose of the study. PBL were cultivated by modified partial micromethod for 52 and 72 h. Blood samples were exposed to X-ray device "RYM - 17" in the dose range of 0.5-1.5 Gy. As a transport form of nitrogen oxide we used nitrosated glutathione, which was injected into the cell culture in the range of 0.25-1.5 mM / ml of blood. Results. The greatest decrease in the induced cytogenetic effects was observed under the combined action of ionizing radiation at a dose of 1.5 Gy and nitric oxide in the concentration of 1.5 mM / ml of blood, that is, at the highest doses of these factors. The overall incidence of chromosomal aberrations under the combined action of nitric oxide (1.0 mM/mL of blood) and ionizing radiation increased linearly with radiation dose (0.5-1.5 Gy). It has been established that the induced mitotic delay does not significantly affect the output of structural chromosome damage. Taking into account the radioecological situation due to the Chernobyl disaster, the obtained results should be taken into consideration when conducting the environmental monitoring. Conclusions. Under the combined effects of ionizing radiation and nitric oxide on the culture of human lymphocytes, the latter factor plays a crucial role in the development of genetic instability and cell death.
Key words: nitric oxide, ionizing radiation, combine effects, chromosome aberrations, genetic instability.

Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes under the effect of co-mutagens (research in vitro)

Dyomina E.A., Pylypchuk O.P.P.46-52

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Aim. The main aim of this paper is to determine the details of chromosome aberrations formation in irradiated human somatic cells depending on the dose of irradiation and concentration of co-mutagen. Methods. The test system of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in culture with metaphase analysis of chromosome aberrations was used. Results. In human peripheral blood lymphocytes (in vitro) we established at chromosomal level the phenomenon of co-mutagenesis under conditions of combined action of radiation (0.3-2.0 Gy) and verapamil (1.5-4.0 mg/ml). Verapamil at a concentration of 4.0 mg/ml was shown to potentiate the damaging effects of low doses of radiation ~ 1.5 times. Frequency of chromosome type aberrations increased with the raising concentration of co-mutagen (1.5 – 4.0 µg/ml). Conclusions. Within performed model experiments it was revealed that inhibition of reparation system under the influence of co-mutagen is the dominant mechanism for increasing the frequency of radiation cytogenetic markers manifestation, such as chromosomal aberrations.
Key words: co-mutagenesis, irradiation, verapamil, radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations, somatic human cells.

Interpedigree differentiation in beef cattle by the frequencies of alleles and genotypes of calpain gene

Dobrianska M.L., Dshus P.P., Podoba Y.V., Kopylov K.V., Kopylova K.V., Sydorenko O.V., Yudin N.S.P.53-57

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Aim. To conduct studies on interpedigree features of beef productivity cattle by the CAPN1 530  polymorphic variant of the calpain gene. Methods. Identification of animal genotypes in studied breeds by polymorphism of CAPN1 530 gene was performed through PCR-RFLP analysis. Genetic distances between breeds by the distribution of gene frequencies of calpain gene genotypes calculated by weighted pair-group method. Results. Investigated breeds of cattle were characterized by high frequency of desired G allele of calpain gene. Its frequency was highest in Ukrainian gray breed - 1.00, the lowest - in the symental breed – 0.35. Conclusions. The results obtained made it possible to characterize the studied breeds of cattle by the CAPN1 530 polymorphism of calpain gene.
Key words: cattle, gene calpain, PCR-RFLP, polymorphism, breed specificity.

Nature of true dormancy status for genus Vitex L. members' seeds and practical experience of its overcoming

Levchyk N.Ya.P.58-68

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Aim. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons underlying non-germination of seeds, establish the type of its dormancy and specify appropriate methods of pre-sowing treatment to overcome it. Methods. Three types of Vitex L. plant’s genus representatives have been investigated in order to find problems with seed reproduction during introduction. The following methods of pre-sowing treatment have been used: solution of Gibberellic Acid (GA3), scarification and cold stratification. Results. Nature of true dormancy status for Vitex L. members' seeds, its stages and distinctive features were found. Different methods of seed pre-sowing treatment have been worked through and most effective ones were identified. The methodical recommendations have been formulated. Conclusions. The true dormancy status of seeds is an important adaptive mechanism for species survival in complex natural environments. Seeds of Vitex L. species require compulsory cold stratification.
Key words: Vitex L., seed hardness, type of true dormancy, embryo, after-ripening, gibberellic acid, stratification.

Correlation between genotype and phenotype in patients with Gardner syndrome

Lozynska М.R., Plawski А., Lozynskyy Y.S. P.69-76

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Aim.Aim is to investigate the relationship of APC gene mutation spectrum and phenotype in patients with Gardner syndrome. Меthods. Clinical examination, genealogical analysis and molecular genetic study of probands and those at risk. Results. The mutations of АРС gene was confirmed in all patients with Gardner syndrome. In three families were identified mutations due to deletions of nucleotides. The average age of symptoms manifestation was 29 years. The largest number of patients with colon cancer was found among carriers of mutations due to deletion of one nucleotide. Conclusion. Conducting DNA diagnosis in patients with Gardner syndrome is a necessary method for the prediction of disease and identifying individuals at risk.
Key words:Gardner syndrome, genealogical analysis, mutations of АРС gene, extraintestinal manifestation.

Equipotentiality among mature eggs in the ovarioles of silkworm imago

Lysenko N.G., Klymenko V.V.P.77-84

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Aim. The aim of this work was to evaluate the equipotentiality of mature unfertilized imago eggs in the silkworm clones. Methods. As an integral criterion for evaluation of the egg potential for development depending on its position in the ovariole were used the degree of serosa egg development after its activation by cold (–11 °C, 30 min) and heat (46 °C, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 min) shocks, with the control of egg maturity serving its response to the classical method of thermoparthenogenesis according to Astaurov (46 °C, 18 min). Results. Both approaches revealed the lack of equipotentiality in the mature unfertilized eggs arranged in different locations along the ovarioles from the ovary to the ovipositor. The extent and nature of heterogeneity identified among mature eggs depend on the clone genotype and the type of treatment applied. Conclusions. The observed variation among mature oocytes is consistent with the early proposed concept of oogenetic variability.
Key words: silkworm, variability, oogenesis, egg activation, parthenogenesis, cloning, developmental potential.

Degree of serous membrane formation in evaluation of developmental potential of the mature oocyte in the silkworm

Liang H., Klimenko V.V.P.85-91

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Aim. The aim of this work is to establish the degree of embryo development inside the diapausing egg upon spontaneous parthenogenesis, depending on the completeness of the serous membrane formation. Methods. The diapausing embryos were studied in squash and total preparations of unfertilized eggs. Results. The development of the embryo inside the egg during spontaneous parthenogenesis correlated with serosa pigmented area on its surface. Conclusions. As an assessment of the developmental potential of an egg (mature oocyte) in a sample of silkworm diapausing unfertilized eggs can be taken the frequency and degree of egg pigmentation, which are determined by the availability and completeness of the serous membrane formation. The most convenient assessment of the development potential of the mature oocyte is frequency of the fully pigmented eggs in the sample.
Key words: Bombyx mori L., oogenesis, spontaneous parthenogenesis, diapause, embryogenesis, developmental potential, oogenetic variability.

Polymorphism of nuclear 5S ribosomal DNA of some Gentiana L. species

Mel’nyk V.M. P.92-95

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Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the level of interspecific 5S rDNA polymorphism in the genus Gentiana L., as well as potential use of this genomic sequence in molecular taxonomy of gentians. Methods. Using polymerase chain reaction with primers complementary to 5S rDNA coding region, nine species from five sections were studied. Results. The length of 5S rDNA repeated unit ranged from 430 to 600 bp, and in the majority (2/3) of the studied species was 500 bp. Different species of the same section may have the same (sections Gentiana and Cruciata) or different (section Pneumonanthe) length of 5S rDNA. 5S rDNA size did not correlate with the length of 45S rDNA or the chromosome numbers. Conclusions. The data obtained demonstrate limited interspecific 5S rDNA length polymorphism in the genus Gentiana, and the need to use different methods and genetic markers for correct assessment of variability among the Gentiana species, their classification and establishment of phylogenetic relationships between different taxa.
Key words: 5S rRNA genes, PCR-analysis, interspecies polymorphism, species of the genus Gentiana L., molecular taxonomy.

Characterization of Triticum spelta L. accessions for grain quality and electrophoretic spectra of storage proteins

Ninieva A.K., Kozub N.O., Sozinov І.O., Leonov O.Yu., Rybalka O.I., Tverdokhleb E.V., Boguslavsky R. L. P.96-105

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Aim is to evaluate a diversity of spelt for qualitative characteristics of grain and storage proteins electrophoretic spectra. Methods. The content of protein, gluten and weight of 1000 grains were determined by standard methods. Genotypes were analyzed for storage protein loci using PAAG electrophoresis in an acidic environment for gliadins and SDS-electrophoresis of HMW glutenin subunits. Results. The winter spelt varieties NSS 3/01 and Nirvana (Serbia) combine high 1000 grains weight with increased content of protein and gluten; the spring spelt UA0300074 (Spain) – with high protein content and gluten quality of group II. Spring spelt Tridentina is characterized by stable revealing of 1000 grains weight trait and higher protein content under different conditions of grain filling. In winter spelt, in more favorable conditions, grain size increases in parallel with increase of protein and gluten content. The genotypes of the varieties are identified by storage proteins loci the first homoeological group of chromosomes, and a diversity of alleles is analyzed. A relationship between presence of a combination of some electrophoretical components of storage proteins and manifestation of grain quality characteristics is found. Conclusions. The peculiarity of spelt compared to bread wheat is the ability to accumulate higher protein in the grain and higher gluten content at relatively large grain size. Possibility to recognize the varieties and spelt grain quality traits marking using electrophoretic spectra of storage proteins requires further study.
Key words: spelt, grain, protein, gluten, electrophoresis.

Socioeconomic prerequisites for the use of genetically modified crops in Ukraine

Novak T.V., Oblap R.V., Novak N.B. P.106-111

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We have performed sociological surveys of different strata of the population of Ukraine to determine their attitude towards GMOs. Total of 1842 respondents have been interviewed. A majority of respondents are not supportive of the use of raw materials from GMOs in food products, although at the same time 75 per cent are actually out of touch with methods of creation of GMOs and genetic engineering in general. Another interesting point to note here is the fact that there is a clearly defined opinion amongst the general public that the use of GMOs needs to be regulated by the state and products produced with the use of GMO should be labeled. At the same time, however, more than 70 per cent of those interviewed are supportive of the idea of a possibility to use GM crops in the bioenergy industry. We have made an attempt to calculate a possible economic benefit from the use of GM agricultural crops in Ukraine on the basis of the prognosis analysis. The level of yield and the selling price increase if the intensive or innovative technology is used, whereas expenditures decrease and the possible profit grows. Thus, the change in a total amount of the possible profit is obvious, especially in the case when the innovative technology is used.
Key words: GM crops, interview, economic profits, technology of production of GM crops, agriculture, prognosis analysis.

Biological activity of plant extract as a possible indicator of the species adaptability level

Pererva T.P., Drobyk N.M., Mel’nyk V.M., Kunakh V.A. P.112-119

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Aim. A comparative study of growth-stimulating, antimutagenic and potential antitumor activity of Gentiana asclepiadea and G. punctata extracts as possible indicators of adaptability of the species to growth conditions. Methods. Ethanol extracts of the roots of two plant model species from the genus Gentiana L. were used. Three MS2-induced mutants of Escherichia coli 3000 obtained earlier were used as bacterial test-objects. Results. The investigated indicators for extracts’ biological activities were significantly higher for G. punctata, indicating a higher metabolic rate of this species, and, obviously, the degree of adaptability. Conclusions. Two biological characteristics of plant extracts, antimutagenic (anticarcinogenic) and growth-stimulating activity, can be used to assess the adaptability of different plant species.
Key words: Gentiana L., biological activity, plant extract, bacterial test-systems, adaptation.

Genotypic variability of animals in cattle breeding depending on their heredity consolidation

Petrenko I.P., Birukova О. D., Gavrilenko М. S. P.120-129

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Aim. Aim is to develop a technique and analyze the genotypic variation of animals in stockbreeding for chromosomes’ additive genetic potential of activity (AGPA). Methods. Based on the proposed technique there was carried out simulation of the genotypic variability of animals by the balance ("+", "–" AHPA) of chromosomes at different levels of heredity consolidation in the population (0-100 %). Results. At increase level of consolidation of heredity in a breed at the protracted, intensive selection genotypic variability of animal on quantitative combination ("+" and "–" AGPA) chromosomes constantly diminishes from 100 % to 0 % and arrives at one middle genotypic class (60 chromosomes BAGPA"+"Max+0 chromosomes SAGPA"–" Min), that means the "plant-breeding plateau" of sign. Conclusions. The consecutive raise of the animals heredity consolidation in stock breeding per one chromosome out of 30 homologous pairs theoretically leads to reducing the gametes' genetic variation by 1 class (out of 31) and genotypic variability of offspring by 2 classes (out of 61) in their theoretically probable formation in breed, population.
Key words: genotypic variability, population, consolidation, additive genetic potential of activity (AGPA) of chromosomes.

Immunogenetic and cytogenetic studies in chorionic villi cells of early pregnancy loss in human

Sosnina K.O., Tkach I.R., Huleyuk N.L., Sedneva I.A., Zastavna D.V. P.130-136

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The aim of study was to carry immunogenetic and cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villi cells of early pregnancy loss in human. Methods. Immunogenetic studies were performed using molecular genetic methods: DNA isolation from chorionic villi by phenol extraction, polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Cytogenetic studies were performed on metaphase plates obtained from uncultivated and short term cultivated chorionic villi cells, which were analyzed using a light microscope with increased ?1000. Results. Molecular genetic studies of HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism was performed. Significantly higher HLA-G 14 bp insertion/ insertion genotype frequency (?? = 4.05, <0.05) in group of spontaneously aborted embryos was established and risk of spontaneous abortions in homozygous HLA-G 14 bp insertion/ insertion genotype is increased up to 2.4 times (OR = 2.4, CI-95 %: 1.00 – 5.58). Cytogenetic studies showed chromosomal aneuploidies in 32 % of cases, which are dominated triploidy (14.5 %) and trisomy for chromosome 16 – 6 %. Conclusions. The results indicated the necessity for complex of cytogenetic and immunogenetic research in early conseptus.
Key words: early reproductive losses, chorionic villi, HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism, karyotype.

Genetic and hormonal regulation of the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

Hablak S.G. P.137-143

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Aim. Aim is to study the structural features of the root hairs in plant mutant lines axr1-1, axr2-1, axr3-1, aux1-7, ctr1-2, etr1-1, ein2-1 and eto1-1 A. thaliana. Methods. We used the vegetation, comparative morphological and statistical research methods. Results. Found that mutations axr1-1, axr2-1, axr3-1 and aux1-7 in genes AXR1, AXR2, AXR3 and AUX1 cause suppression of hairs epiblemy. Mutations ctr1-2 and eto1-1 in genes CTR1 and ETO1 cause in the root system increased formation of root hairs while mutations etr1-1 and ein2-1 in genes ETR1 and EIN2 lead to decreased formation of outgrowths in root skin cells. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that auxin and ethylene in A. thaliana plants play an important role in the development of root hairs.
Key words: Arabidopsis thaliana, root hair, gene, mutant line, auxin, ethylene.

Assessment of genetic markers for early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to anti-tb drugs

Cherednyk Yu.О., Anopriyenko O.V., Gorovenko N.G., Feschenko Yu.I. P.144-152

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Aim. The aim was to determine the most effective and informative PCR-markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for identification of pathogen in clinical samples to accelerate detection of multidrug-resistant strains. Methods. The 69 clinical samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis living in Kyiv (Ukraine) were analyzed by PCR with primers to 10 genomic markers and methods of microscopy and seeding on culture medium. PCR-positive samples were analyzed by PCR test system "Magicplex TB/MDR Real-time Test (ver.2.0)" (Seegene Inc., Korea) for resistance to antituberculous drugs. Results. 45 sputum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were PCR-positive, accounting for 63.8% of all samples that is more efficient rate than pathogen detection by microscopy (39.1%) and cultural seeding (53.6%). PCR markers Is-2 and hsp65-3 showed high efficiency of M. tuberculosis detection (59.4% and 53.6%, respectively). Of the 45 PCR-positive specimens 12 (26.7%) showed resistance to both rifampicin and isoniazid, indicating the multidrug-resistant strains. Conclusions. Combination of several most sensitive and informative markers in PCR express-diagnostics for detection and identification of M.tuberculosis increases the efficiency of sequentialdetermining of the strains resistant to anti-TB drugs.
Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; diagnostics, tuberculosis, PCR, multidrug resistance.

Evaluation of Ukrainian population of thoroughbred riding horses breed for microsatellite DNA markers

Shelyov А.V., Melnyk O.V., Spiridonov V.G., Melnychuk S.D., Zujeva N.V. P.153-158

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Aim. Aim is to explore alelofund of the national population of thoroughbred horse breed horses for microsatellite loci with view to assess and maintain its genetic diversity and determining the genetic situation in the population. Methods. Research of Ukrainian population Thoroughbred horse breed horses performed using PCR for 12 microsatellite DNA loci. Results. A genetic study of 12 microsatellite loci suggested that most informative were AHT04, ASB23, HMS07 and ASB17, and the least informative – HTG06 and CA425. For all loci, except for HTG06, population tends to increase homozygosity. Combined exclusion probability of accidental coincidence of alleles was 99.7851%. Conclusions. The results obtained indicate a high diversity of alelofund in Ukrainian population of thoroughbred horses. To improve the authenticity of thoroughbred horse breed genotyping one should use additional highly informative microsatellite DNA markers.
Key words: thoroughbred riding horse breed, genotyping, allele, microsatellite DNA.

Reviews

The selective alteration of the morphogenetic subroutines responsible for reproductive function of silver-black foxes

Vagyn Yr.V.P.159-163

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Multi-year breeding of silver foxes by the nature of defensive behavior led to the launch of their reproductive function restructuring. This alteration was characterized by the changes in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian signaling system of females; as a consequence there was loss of their typical seasonal breeding and the emergence of their non-breeding season, in the autumn of the year, states of proestrus, and sometimes that of estrus. So fast and clearly marked selective alteration of the fox reproductive system indicates a leading role in these developments of driving form in positive selection, whose effect is directed to the regulator genes responsible for switching pathways of individual development of traits. Thus, the results of studies on the process of fox domestication is a unique experimental proof of the correctness of a key provision of the new evolutionary synthesis (NES), disclosing the specifics of the morphological evolution of organisms.
Key words: driving form of positive selection, morphological evolution, gene-regulator, domestication, new evolutionary synthesis.

Discussions

Pseudoscientific terms in modern biology

Maletskii S.I.P.164-174

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The article discusses the phenomenon of widespread use of pseudobiological terms (spam in the scientific lexicon) in current scientific literature of Russia. The appearance of pseudoterms, on the one hand, is due both to the urgent need to designate new phenomena in the development of knowledge in the field of biology, while on the other, their occurrence illustrates violation the principle of strict finitism in scientific concepts by the authors . The particular sets of pseudo biological terms (oxymorons) arising as a result of ungrounded expansion of concrete biological notions’ applicability and which are prevalent in today's publishing space were considered.
Key words: pseudo-science, oxymoron, semantics, enantiomers, epygenetics.

Personalities

”I was destined to say mankind the new ...” Vernadskyi Volodymyr Ivanovych (12.03.1863 – 06.01.1945)

Pidpala O.V.P.175-179

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Anniversaries

Academician Lyubov Vladimirovna Hotyliova (to 85th Anniversary of the birthday)

P.180-183

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Academician Volodymyr Vasyl’ovych Morgun (to the 75th Anniversary of the birthday)

P.184-186

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Professor Stanislav Ignatievich Maletskiy (to the 75th Anniversary of the birthday)

P.187-189

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Professor Stanislav Stanislavovych Maliuta (to the 70th Anniversary of the birthday)

P.190

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Professor Fedir Mykytovych Pariy (to the 70th Anniversary of the birthday)

P.191-192

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Obituaries

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Kartel (5.05.1937 – 1.04.2013)

P.193-195

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Information

Selection and genetics: science and education

Opalko A.I.P.196-202

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During the International scientific conference «Genetics/breeding sciences and education» held in March 18 – 20th in Uman’ National University of Horticulture topical problems of history, current state and prospects for development of genetics and selection in Ukraine and in the world were discussed. The causes and consequences of the crisis in national genetic/breeding science and education that happened in the middle of the last century were analyzed. The debating points of plant genosystematics were considered; details of local and exotic breeding material genetic resources mobilization, the theoretical foundations of traditional plant breeding methods (hybridisation, mutagenesis, polyploidy), the value of transgenic plants in the breeding experiment, in vitro technique and its use in plant breeding, seed production and nursery were discussed.
Ключові слова: genetic resources, genosystematics, heterosis, hybridization, alien plants, mutagenesis, seed production, in vitro, transgenic crops.

Language advisor

Language advisor

P.203-204

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