The Bulletin of Vavilov Society of Geneticists and Breeders of Ukraine, Vol.10, N1

In this issue:

Original papers

Variability of quantitative traits of soybean in the breed of intervarietal crossings F2 and F3

Bilyavska L.G., Korneeva M.A.

P.3-12

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Aim. With the aim of purposeful selection of best genotypes, the individual variability of quantitative soybean characteristics in the intervarietal crossing F1-F2 breed have been studied. Methods. Based on the methods of variational statistics, quantitative variability of morphological traits in F2 and F3 generations of intervarietal hybrids was investigated. Results. Comparative analysis of empirical and theoretical distribution of genotypes according to these characteristics has been taken. Conclusion. Findings let us purposely do the selections of the best genotypes with needed level of characteristics.
Key words: soybean, features, variability, intervarietal hybrids, factor of variation, asymmetry.

Effect of copper ions on lipid peroxidation in Cat2 knockout mutant ofArabidopsis thaliana

Doliba I.M., Volkov R.A., Panchuk I.I.P.13-19

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Aims. Stress proteins in plants are usually encoded by multigene families, but specific metabolic functions of individual isoenzyme often remain poorly understood. In order to clarify if different isoforms of catalase are indispensable for plant protection, or, alternatively, they can functionally substitute each other, copper stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type plants and Cat2 knockout mutant were compared. Methods. Accumulation of copper ions in leaves and the level of membrane lipid peroxidation were measured upon different regimes of plants treatment by copper chloride. Results. It was found that accumulation of copper ions activate lipid peroxidation in arabidopsis leaves. Surprisingly, in Cat2 knockout mutant possessing reduced catalase activity the maximal level of lipid peroxidation observed after application of 5 mM copper chloride was lower than in wild type plants. Conclusions. The data indicate activation of alternative protective mechanisms that upon copper stress effectively compensate the lack of CAT2 in the mutant.
Key words: Arabidopsis thaliana, catalase, copper, lipid peroxidation, multigene families, knockout mutants.

In vitro selection of wheat for complex resistance to metabolites of take-all disease agent and water deficit

Zinchenko M.A., Dubrovna O.V, Bavol A.V. P.20-27

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Aims. To obtain the cell lines and plant-regenerants of bread wheat resistant for complex of stress factors, such as metabolites of take-all disease agent and water deficit the in vitro selection was carried out. Methods. Using a system with a low molecular mannitol we investigated the efficiency of direct and step-type in vitro selection. Results. It was carried out direct and step-type in vitro selection and implemented selection of wheat cell lines that are resistant to a complex of stress factors. A step-type in vitro selection proved to be better, because it resulted in more resistant callus forms. From the resistant lines were generated regenerated plants and there was optimized their rearing, rooting and transfer to the conditions in vivo. Conclusions. For the first time cell lines of bread wheat with cross-resistance to the metabolites of take-all disease agent and water deficit were derived. It was revealed that the lines resistant to biotic stressors can possess cross-resistance to abiotic stress as well.
Key words: Triticum aestivum L., in vitro selection, take-all disease, osmotic stress, resistance.

Obtaining of transgenic endive Cichorium endivia L. and chicory C. intybus L. plants

Kvasko O.Y., Matvieieva N.A., Shahovsky A.M., Kuchuk N.V. P.28-32

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Aim. Оbtaining of transgenic endive and chicory plants was the purpose of our work. Methods. Plant transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of cotyledons with Agrobacterium tumefacience (vector pCB125). The bar gene presence was analyzed by PCR. The frequency of transgenic plant regeneration was counted as a proportion of the explants number with regenerated plants under selective conditions to the total number of explants. The efficiency of transgenic plant regeneration was estimated as a number of green plants per explants. Results. The transgenic endive and chicory plants with bar gene were obtained using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The frequency of chicory and endive plant regeneration after transformation constituted 15 and 20 %, and efficiency – 8 and 5 plants per explants, respectively. Conclusions. The conditions of Agrobacterium tumefacience-mediated transformation of endive and chicory plants by vector with bar gene were optimized. The frequency of green endive plants regeneration after transformation was higher than chicory plants regeneration but efficiency of endive plant regeneration was lower.
Key words: Cichorium intybus, Cichorium endivia, transformation.

RAPD-polymorphism in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of Kharkov breeding

Kirichenko V.V., Chernobay L.N., Kitayova S.S. P.33-41

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Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Kharkov-selected inbred lines of maize, because the molecular-genetic polymorphism of these lines has not been studied before. Methods. 58 inbred lines of maize were investigated. The methods of field estimation, laboratory RAPD-analysis, statistic cluster analysis were used. Results. The percentage of polymorphic amplicons in the studied sample lines varied from 63.64 % (OPU-01 primer) to 84.21 % (OF-10 primer) at the average 75.93 %. The genetic distances measured by Nei and Li varied from 0.0020 between Kharkovskaya 155 and UKY 27 specimens to 0.0370 between SM 7 and UKY 14 ones and averaged 0.0099 in the sample. Conclusions. High level of polymorphism in Kharkov-selected inbred lines of maize was revealed. We established that grouping of the lines based on the genetic distances array may explain in a sense not only the generality of lines origin, but their biological characteristics as well.
Key words: Zea mays L., inbred lines, polymorphism, RAPD-analysis.

Influence of Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin and its isoforms on the proliferation and survival of mammalian cells in vitro

Коchubei Т.O., Piven О.O., Аndrienko V.I., Маcewicz L.L., Karpova I.S., Lukash L.L.P.42-50

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Aim. To compare the influence of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) isolectins, crude peptide and its isolated isoformes on proliferation, survival and apoptosis induction in mammalian cell culture. Methods The method of cytotoxicity/mitogenicity evaluation by microculture test and apoptosis testing by fluorescent dyes were used. Conclusions. The influence of phytohemagglutinin and its individual isoforms on proliferation and apoptosis of different origin cells in vitro was investigated. It was shown that all lectins studied can affect the cells proliferation in dose-dependent mode and induce the apoptosis. At high levels of the proteins examined there was observed inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis with cells being on its various stages.
Key words: phytohemagglutinin, isolectins, proliferation, apoptosis, cell culture in vitro.

Methylenetetrahydrofolat reductase C677Т gene polymorphism among colorectal cancer patients

Lozynska M.R., Chorna L.B., Makukh H.V., Lozynskyy Y.S.P.51-57

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Aim. To study the role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677Т gene polymorphism in the colorectal cancer appearance and the correspondence of the different alleles of MTHFR gene in patients with sporadic and hereditary form of the disease. Methods. Genomic DNA of 55 patients and 130 controls was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results. There were not found any statistically significant differences between cancer patients and controls by the incidence of mutant 677СС genotype. Male cancer patients showed higher 677СС genotype rate than female patients, while 677СТ genotype prevailed in female patients. Conclusion. Upon hereditary (familial) form of colorectal cancer homozygotes exhibiting 677СС genotype occurred twice as much than in the case of sporadic form of this oncological disease. MTHFR 677T allele incidence in cancer patients practically didn't differ from this mutant allele frequency among individuals of the control group.
Key words: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, gene polymorphisms, colorectal cancer.

The features of pollen forming and hibridization of species and varieties of cannes (Canna L.) in the Krivij Rih botanical garden

Mazura M.Y., Chugunkova T.V., Matyashuk R.K. P.58-64

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Aim. With the purpose of creating of new forms and varieties of garden cannes with improved ornamental signs, adapted to growth in the steppe regions of Ukraine, the peculiarities of the pollen formation and the results of hybridization of different species and varieties of cannes were studied. Methods. The cytological researches of pollen and the hybridization of varieties of introduced species of cannes. Results. The features of pollen maturation in varieties and exotic species of Cannes in the second - the third phases of a flower development - from bud stage to full loose flower opening were investigated. The viability of pollen grains was determined and an artificial hybridization was conducted. Of the 50 combinations of crosses the 22 % proved to be effective. The efficiency of seed stringing was from 6,6 to 91,6 %. Conclusions. For first time the flower pollen fertility of varieties and introduced samples of cannes at various stages of development under a destabilized environment of industrial regions of Ukraine was analysed. Promising combinations of crossing of different cannes genotypes with a view to enrich domestic assortment were identified.
Key words: species and varieties of canna, the steppe industrial regions of Ukraine, the fertility of pollen, hybridization.

Methodology of genetic improvement ascanian meat-wool breeds of sheep

Polska P.І., Kalashchuk H.P.P.65-70

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Aim. Genetic improvement of Ascanian Meat-Wool breed of sheep, which provides its plant-breeding progress. Methods. Creation of prominent genotypes by the method of deep selection in not numerous closed populations. Results. The methodical receptions of genetic improvement of Ascanian Meet-Wool breed of sheep are worked out and approved by creation in Breeding farm of Іnstitute of Animal "Аscania-Nova" in not numerous closed population even in conditions of unstable level of feeding of prominent genotypes: Ascanian Crossbreds and Ascanian Dark-Headed with unique combination of meat, milk and wool productivity and by high adaptive and rehabilitation ability. Their deployment in the subjects of pedigree business and different agrarian farms allows not only to pick up industry of the sheep breeding in Ukraine on new high-quality basis without the import of meat breeds of sheep and types but also form export potential of domestic selection resources of world level, economize currency money and prevent the import of causative agents of dangerous genetic diseases. Conclusions. Gene pool herd of intrabreed intensive types of sheep of Breeding farm "Аscania-Nova" with a high genetic variety (8 lines and 26 family groups) and attained selection plateau of the record combined productivity: meat, milk and wool at excellent genesial internals and especially high selection value is generating genetic basis of Ascanian Meat-Wool breed of sheep with crossbred wool which provides its high-quality progress.
Key words: sheep, intensive types, not numerous closed populations, methodical receptions, genetic variety, plant-breeding progress.

Influence of functional knockout of genes Dys, Dg, Cam, capt in nervous tissue on locomotor activity and lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster

Rishko V.M., Chernyk Ya.I.P.71-77

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Aim. To elucidate the role of the main Dystrophin-Glycoprotein complex components – Dystrophin (Dys), Dystroglycan (Dg) and their modifiers – Calmodulin (Cam) and Capulet (capt) in nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, the functional knockout of the genes encoding these proteins was performed. Methods. Adult flies with functional defects of these genes were tested for locomotor activity and lifespan. Results and conclusions. It was found that lack of products encoded be genes Dys, Dg, Cam, capt in nervous system lead to changes in locomotor activity and decrease of average lifespan indexes of flies.
Key words: Drosophila melanogaster, Dystrophin, Dystroglycan, lifespan, locomotor activity.

Submicroscopic analysis of the synaptonemal complexes in mice meiocytes exposed in the zone of Chernobyl APS

Safronova L.D., Shustrova I.V.P.78-85

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The effect of radiation on behavior of meiotic chromosomes in Mus musculus males carrying various t-haplotypes has been studied. Mice were exposed for 1.5 months within 30 km zone of Chernobyl APS. Through submicroscopy evaluated structure of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) in male spermatocytes and their offspring F1, F2 was evaluated. Prolong chronic irradiation was shown to essentially affect the structure of the meiotic chromosomes. Various types of lesions for autosomal and sexual bivalents were identified. The autosomal bivalents are distinguished by breaks and fragments, loops, asynaptic configurations, while sexual chromosomes demonstrate univalents and rings. In exposed mice, the frequency of chromosomal damage in a number of features is higher than in the offspring and decreases from the first generation to second. The obtained data seem to confirm the role of damaging effect of radiation on the structure of the meiotic chromosomes as revealed through submicroscopic analysis of SC that is consistent with other workers.
Key words: synaptonemal complex, meiotic chromosomes, meiocytes, t-haplotypes.

The molecular-genetic mechanisms of plant growth regulators with bioprotective properties

Tsygankova V.А., Ponomarenko S.P., Blume Ya.B.P.86-94

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Aim. To find out the molecular-genetic mechanisms of increasing sugar beet and spring wheat plants resistance to pathogenic organisms. Methods. The plants of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L., infected with cyst root nematode Heterodera schachtii, and plants of spring wheat, infected with pathogenic micromycete Fusarium oxysporum graminearum,were investigated. Using method of mRNA molecular hybridization with si/miRNA the possibility of induction by plant growth regulators of synthesis si/miRNA with antipathogenic activity was verified. The method of mRNA DOT-blot hybridization with si/miRNA was applied. Results. It was shown for the first time that plant growth regulators may increase the resistance of sugar beet plants against parasitic nematodes Heterodera schachtii as well as resistance of spring wheat plants to pathogenic micromycete Fusarium oxysporum graminearum through enhancement of synthesis of small regulatory si/miRNA. Conclusions. The established distinctions in populations of si/miRNA between control plants of sugar beet and spring wheat as well as the experimental plants, treated with composite preparations showing bioprotective properties against artificially created by nematode Heterodera schachtii, and also by pathogenic micromycete Fusarium oxysporum graminearum infectious background, indicate the existence of flexible system for reprogramming of plant cells genome under the influence of different external regulatory factors.
Key words: plant growth regulators, the small regulatory si/miRNA, the plant resistance to pathogens.

Investigation on radioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. extract

Shamilov E.N., Abdullayev A.S., Rzayeva I.A., Guliyev N.G., Gasimova N.I., Mammadrzayeva E.T., Azizov I.V.P.95-99

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Aim. To investigate radioprotective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract. Methods. Cytogenetic techniques were used, studies were carried out on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of white rats «Wistar». Results. Irradiation at dose of 3 Gy resulted in a noticeable inhibition of cell division. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased to 3,75 % due to structural defects (deletions, fragments, inversions). In animals that received a single irradiation at dose of 5 Gy, the frequency of chromosome aberrations increased to 8,44 %. At the same time there was a sharp increase in the ring chromosomes, dicentrics, and fragments in single mitotic cells of the bone marrow. There were marked increase in polyploid and aneuploid meiotic plates at the stage of diakinesis-metaphase I, metaphase II. Conclusions. It was shown that intraperitoneal injection of an extract of saffron has a softening effect on the damaging dose of radiation: the intensity of cell division has not changed, the number of structural defects did not exceed 2,6 %, and that is, we observed recovery of cell division and reducing damage of nuclear apparatus.
Key words: exposure, aberration, saffron.

Modifying influence of sodium humate on genotoxity induced by mitomycin C

Shkarupa V.M.P.100-104

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Aim. To investigate the potential antimutagenic effects of a sodium humate on genotoxity induced by mitomycin C (МС) in Allium-test. Metods. Sodium humate has been tested at concentration of 100 mg/L, either alone or after 72-hour interaction with 0,025 mg/L of MC by addition to the Allium cepa L. seeds.. Anticlastogenicity action defined as the capacity for minimizing chromosome breakages, was evaluated by counting aberrant ana-telophases (AAT) in root-tip cells. Results Upon action of a MC inhibition of mitotic activity, decomposition of mitotic cell pools, increase in aberrant cells frequency (21,92±1,08 % in comparison with 1,94±0,09 % in the control) were observed. Sodium humate completely inhibited mitotoxic influence of MC, and by 62,45 % reduced frequency of aberrant cells induced by mutagen. Conclusions. Sodium humate seems to display antimutagenic characteristics in relation to cytogenetic effects, induced by mitomycin C in Allium-test.
Key words: sodium humate, antimutagenesis, Allium-test.

Reviews

Atherosclerosis: genetics, epigenetics and prophylaxis

Vagyn Yr.V., Yavorovska V.I.P.105-115

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The dual hereditary nature of atherosclerosis has been demonstrated. On the one hand, it may result from a series of single individual genes, while on the other hand it may be mediated by multiple gene polymorphisms. Apart from inheritance, the essential contribution to the atherosclerosis etiology could make the epigenetics as well. Evidence for benefits of diet and physical activity in its prophylaxis was presented.
Key words: atherosclerosis, heredity, epigenetics.

The interchangeability of diverse abiotic and biotic stimuli in the induction of transcription factor expression

Kamenchuk O.P., Kurchii B.A.P.116-125

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In the review the mechanisms of induction for expression of transcription factors in higher plants are considered. It is shown that activation of transcription factors' gene expression that contain a domain “homeodomain-leucine zipper” (HD-Zip) occurs under the influence of the abiotic factors, in particular, auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, brassinosteroids; abscisic, jasmonic and salicylic acids, hydrogen peroxide, drought; low temperature, salt and osmotic stresses. Similar action was registered for pathogen fungi as well. It was concluded that despite the presence of the individual receptors, each of the growth regulator studied, can initiate the expression of several genes of transcription factors.
Key words: phytohormones, receptors, transcription factors, homeodomains, homeoboxes.

Discussions

Life. Motion of the Energy, Cell and Information Unity of the Matter

Bobukh L.V.P.126-134

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Aim. Development of the general scientific picture of Life organization, from nanosystems to mega-level systems. Methods. Modeling of biosystems was performed with utilization of the function of energy, cell and information status of physical and biological systems f (Е,С,I). Results. The following models were developed: a model of equilibrium trajectory of changing of the biological system cell and information status throughout life, the shape of which – “spiral on a spiral, on a spiral” – is determined by the trajectory of mechanical motion of the Earth around its own axis, the Sun, the center of Galaxy; a model of Life (figures of revolution: ellipsoid, sphere, “egg”). Conclusions. We have determined a possibility of modeling of Life as a natural phenomenon which is organized by the energy, cell and information triunity of the Universe moving in the space and time.
Key words: life, motion, energy, element, information, system, model.

Adaptive properties in plants of Tradescantia paludosa М 121 clone as a result of epigenetic inheritance

Delone N.L.P.135-143

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Aim. To determine nature of supplementary chromosomes, their composition, quality and quantity in them of the heterochromatin upon Tradesсantia paludosa adaptability. Methods. Upon sporogenesis there was used the cytogenetic analysis of postmeiotic mitoses employing such experimental factors as a temperature shock, chemical mutagenesis etc. Results. The scheme for adaptation owing to gene activity regulation was proposed. At the first step in response to extremal impact there occurs the structural chromosome regrouping. The second step "provides a mobilization of the internal resources”. The third step of adaptation may ensue upon heterochromatin increase on the one hand and increase in tandem genes number on the other. Conclusions. The stable rearrangement of eu-heterochromatic complex in the cell nucleus was shown to result in epigenetic inheritance and may manifest itself in alteration of such complicated trait as adaptation potentialities.
Key words: B-chromosome, epigenetics, heterochromatin.

Personalities

Mesomorphism of living creatures and noosphere views of Vladimir Vernadskii

Maletskii S.I.P.169-180

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The paper deals with the natural-science views (over a period 1920-1940) of Russian encyclopaedist Vladimir Vernadsky on the nature of living (or animate) matter, bioinert and inert (or inanimate) matters in our planet. Vernadsky as a priority singles out the geometrical properties of living matter (dissymmetry of living matter and its chirality) that in his opinion exclusively allows distinguishing living (or animate) matter from the inert one. The bioorganic molecules and polymers (inert and bioinert substances of the planet) may not be living matter, this may be ascribed only to entities capable to realize a full cycle of development including growth, metabolism, irritability, autoregulation, reproduction and adaptation to environmental conditions etc. In particular, plants are referred by him to the mesomorphic organisms that are composed of “bio” and “geo” components. Semantics of modern biological concepts is examined within the framework of development of Vernadsky ideas. There were considered biological concepts associated with mesobiology, i.e. description of developments and processes at molecular level. Subject of research in mesobiology and megabiology is different. V.I. Vernadsky advanced a natural-science theory of noosphere, i.e. sphere of intelligent creativity. Breeders activities aimed at conservation and changes of livings beings are obvious case of noosphere creativity that is taken advantage of the human civilization progress.
Key words: animate matter or living matter, bioinert matter, biosphere, chirality of molecules, essential natural object, inanimate matter, information, mesomorphism, mesobiology, megabiology, noosphere, oxymoron, symmetry and dissymmetry of molecules.

Scientific creations of N.I. Vavilov in modern selection domestic animals

Ruban J.D.P.169-180

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The fundamental works of N.I. Vavilov about world centers of origin of cultivated plants and domestic animals, the law of homological series in hereditary variation have been used and for ever will be used in modern and future breeding. These works became the scientific foundation to development of world centers of cattle breeds origin and creation of synthetic theory of animal breeding. The evolutionary principle of breeding work construction with singling out the most significant indices permit selection and choice of desirable type of cattle.
Key words: scientific creation of N.I. Vavilov, world centers of cattle breeds origin, synthetic theory of animal breeding.

Anniversaries

Kartel, Nikolai Aleksandrovich (to the 75th Anniversary of the birthday)

С.181-182

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Klimenko, Viacheslav Victorovich (to the 70th Anniversary of the birthday)

С.183-184

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Information

Міжнародна науково-практична конференція «Індукований мутагенез в селекції рослин»

С.185-187

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ІХ з’їзд Українського товариства генетиків і селекціонерів ім. М.І. Вавилова. Інформаційний лист

С.188-189

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