The globalization in highlights: achievements and genetic risks
Aim. A large-scale selection is based on the use of modern achievements of population genetics, creation of automatic informative systems with the help of electronic counting equipment, modelling and optimization of the selecting programs on EOM and modern biological technologies of recreation of animals. Centralization of selecting work enables to conduct genetic development of large number of dairy cattle within separate breeds with the effective use of achievements of practical selection in separate herds. Methods. In the conditions of large-scale selection the combination of pedigree, reproductive and marketable herds takes place in the only selective process. The aim of selective program is to transfer the selective achievements from the active part of the breed to the whole herd of the population. In terms of implementation of large-scale selection system there is a problem of optimal amount of lines in the population of separate breeds. There are three lines and three genealogical groups in the Holstein breed (more than 10 ml cows). Due to F.F. Eysner (1986), to conduct effective selective work in the breeds of narrow natural habitat of distribution it is necessary to have 6-8 lines and for wide natural habitat – not less than 15–20 lines. Results. Reduction of factory lines and genealogical groups in Holstein breed leads to reduction of genetic variety and unsystematic use of sperm of male-leaders results in the family mating. Moreover if males with their own genes and genes of their cubs in genotype are used, the frequency of genetic anomalies in pedigree population increases very fast. Conclusions. The work with the use of male-producers must be conducted under permanent genetic control. All males and their female cubs selected for the experiment must be identified according to the factors of blood types. Besides, male-producer leaders must be checked to determine if they have anomalies in chromosomes and lethal factors in perspective. Intensive use of male-improvers, estimated by their cubs is the base for effective large-scale selection of dairy cattle breed.
Keywords: large-scale selection, breed, line, genotype, chromosome anomalies.
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