Изменчивость размера генома хвойных растений в экстремальных условиях произрастания
Aim. The features of genome size transformation in conifers growing in extreme environmental conditions are reviewed. Conclusions. Conifers have a very large genome. The main resources of genome size modifications of conifers under extreme environmental conditions are: variability of the chromosome numbers (polyploidy, aneuploidy; mixoploidy), occurrence of B-chromosomes and increasing of its numbers, changes of the content of nuclear DNA, variation of the repetitive DNA sequences (microsatellites, ribosomal RNA genes, transposable elements – retrotransposons), and the chromosomal rearrangements. These features are also components of the epigenetic system which defines the adaptability of the genome changes when exposed to stressful environmental factors.
Keywords: Pinophyta, genome, repetitive DNA sequences, epigenetic system.