Distribution of the macaques genus-specific Alu repeat AluMacYa3 in the MGMT gene orthologs of old world monkeys

Keywords: Cercopithecidae, MGMT gene, genus-specific Alu repeat, AluMacYa3


Aim. To follow the distribution and evolution of the macaques genus-specific Alu repeat AluMacYa3 in Cercopithecidae MGMT gene orthologs. Methods. The homology between nucleotide sequences has been determined by the BLAST 2.6.1 program. The results of the search and identification of MGE have been obtained by the CENSOR program. Results. It has been shown on the example of Cercopithecidae MGMT gene orthologs that the genus-specific Alu repeat AluMacYa3 is present not only in the intron sequences of macaques, but also in other representatives of the Old World monkeys and in its evolutionary history not a deletion degradation of nucleotide sequences, as it is in the case of species-specific Alu repeats, but a single nucleotide polymorphism is dominated. Conclusions. Thus, the macaque genus-specific Alu repeat AluMacYa3 has been identified in different representatives of the Old World monkeys and its evolutionary history combines nucleotide polymorphism and deletion degradation of nucleotide sequences.


Sotero-Caio C. G., Platt R. N., Suh A., Ray D. A. Evolution and diversity of transposable elements in vertebrate genomes. Genome Biol. Evol. 2017. Vol. 9. P. 161–177.

Almojil D., Bourgeois Y., Falis M., Hariyani I., Wilcox J., Boissinot S. The Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Impact of Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes. Genes. 2021. Vol. 12(6). P. 918. doi: 10.3390/genes12060918.

Ullu E., Tschudi C. Alu sequences are processed 7SL RNA genes. Nature. 1984. Vol. 312(5990). P. 171–172.

Kapitonov V., Jurka J. The age of Alu subfamilies. J. Mol. Evol. 1996. Vol. 42(1). P. 59–65.

McLain A. T., Carman G. W., Fullerton M. L., Beckstrom T. O., Gensler W., Meyer T. J., Faulk C., Batzer M. A. Analysis of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) specific Alu repeats. Mob. DNA. 2013. Vol. 4(1). P. 26. doi: 10.1186/1759-8753-4-26.

Baker J. N., Walker J. A., Vanchiere J. A., Phillippe K. R., St. Romain C. P., Gonzalez-Quiroga P., Denham M. W., Mierl J. R., Konkel M. K., Batzer M. A. Evolution of Alu subfamily structure in the Saimiri lineage of new world monkeys. Genome Biol. Evol. 2017. Vol. 9(9). P. 2365–2376. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx172.

Konkel M. K., Walker J. A., Batzer M. A. LINEs and SINEs of primate evolution. Evol. Anthropol. 2010. Vol. 19(6). P. 236–249. doi: 10.1002/evan.20283.

Pidpala O. V., Lukash L. L. Species-specific mobile genetic elements in the gene of repair enzyme MGMT in New World monkeys. Factors in Experimental Evolution of Organisms. 2021. Vol. 28. P. 128–134. doi: 10.7124/FEEO.v28.1388

Pidpala O. V., Lukash L. L. Evolutionary history of species-specific Alu repeats on the example of the MGMT gene of Old World monkeys. Factors in Experimental Evolution of Organisms. 2022. Vol. 30. P. 126–132. doi: 10.7124/FEEO.v30.1473

Perelman P., Johnson W. E., Roos C., Seuánez H. N., Horvath J. E., Moreira M. A. M., Kessing B., Pontius J., Roelke M., Rumpler Y., Schneider M. P. C., Silva A., O’Brien S. J., Pecon-Slattery J. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates. PLoS Genet. 2011. Vol. 7(3). e1001342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001342.

Quentin Y. Origin of the Alu family: a family of Alu-like monomers gave birth to the left and the right arms of the Alu elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992. Vol. 20(13). P. 3397–3401.

Mighell A. J., Markham A. F., Robinson P. A. Alu sequences. FEBS Lett. 1997. Vol. 417(1). P. 1–5. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(97)01259-3.

Jurka J., Kapitonov V. V., Pavlicek A., Klonowski P., Kohany O., Walichiewicz J. Repbase Update, a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005. Vol. 110. P. 462–467. doi: 10.1159/000084979.

Raaum R. L., Sterner K. N., Noviello C. M., Stewart C. B., Disotell T. R. Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence. J. Hum. Evol. 2005. Vol. 48. P. 237–257.