Використання генетичної нестабільності чорнобильських мутантів в селекції Triticum aestivum L. на адаптивність
Aim. The results of 30-year-long study of T. aestivum L. winter wheat hereditary changes that took place in result of radiation exposure in the fields near the destroyed Chernobyl reactor during two year period (1986–1987) were provided. Methods. The modified forms of plants were cultivated by pedigree method for 30 years. Results. The following types of mutations were found: 1) morphological – ear, spikelet’s, stems, leaves structure anomalies; 2) systemic that featured traits of other species – T. spelta (L); T. compactum (Host) and T. vavilovi (Tum. and Jakubz); 3) physiological growth and development mutations accompanied by hormonal systems changes, sterile flowers, early and late ma-turing; dwarfness and height change; 4) mutations of stress resistance, improved winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to diseases. Conclusions. Mutations were genetically unstable and their range extended from generation to generation. Mutations on high adaptability manifested themselves only under stressful environmental conditions. They were used as a starting material for varieties that were included into the State Register. This way Yasochka variety had increased drought tolerance and resistance to lodging; Lybid variety had increased resistance to ice crust; Tsarivna, Romantica and Lisova Pisnia varieties – high winter hardiness and drought tolerance; Vidrada – organic production suitability with resistance to main diseases and a superb baking qualities.
Keywords: variety, wheat, unstable mutagenesis, adaptability.
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