Визначення індивідуальних канабіноїдних сполук Cannabis sativa L. за значенням Rf методом тонкошарової хроматографії

Д. Б. Рахметов, А. С. Полякова


Aim. Modern researches identified a significant number of individual cannabinoid compounds: neutral – KBD, THC, KBN and acids – KBDK, THCC. Schultz et al., R. Mechoulam believe that cannabidiolic acid – KBDK has an advantage over the other cannabinoids in the nature. It is the main component of the cannabinoid substances. Defining acids in the sorts by the value of Rf by the method of the thin layer chromatography (TLC), with the absence of "witnesses" for them is of interest. Methods. TLC method was applied to the samples (leaves, perianth, buds) of the domestic and French varieties of hemp. KBD, THC and KBN were defined by "witnesses" – KBDK and THCC by the value of Rf. Results. By the results of the chromatographic analysis, it was found that the compound with the value 0.059–0.060 of Rf was related to cannabidiolic acid while compound with the value 0.131 of Rf belonged to tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. In the chromatogram, the defined acids occupied the lowest border by the distribution front of the mobile phase. Conclusions. The study showed that during the plant vegetative growth and development only cannabidiolic acid was biosynthesised: Rf – 0.059–0.060; the French variety Futura 77 also had tetrahydrocannabinolic acid: Rf – 0.131. During the biological maturity of domestic hemp varieties seeds the neutral compounds were virtually absent. Biosynthesis of acids amplified. The French varieties demonstrated significant accumulation of both neutral cannabinoids and acids.
Keywords: thin layer chromatography (TLC), individual cannabinoids compounds (KBN, KBD, THC), Rf value, cannabinoid acids (KBDK, THCC).

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