Ренесанс посівних конопель як результат успішної селекції
Aim. With the organization of Research Station first, then Institute of Hemp it was predicted to increase productivity and improve service of hemp-growing branch. Methods. Through traditional breeding different ecotypes of hemp were formed with which was started scientific breeding by methods of selection and hybridization. Results. For 40 years of selection the fiber content in stems of dioecious hemp was increased from 13.9 to 33.5 %. By the method of acclimati-zation the variety US-1, and hybridization – US-6 were created, which united a high yield of stems with high fiber content. Breeders also realized the dream of farmers about creation of monoecious hemp, which opened the way to the mechanization of harvesting. Addicts are "awakened" in nature lulling hemp ability to narcotic excitement; the breeders have forced a non-narcotic hemp, while maintaining their economic characteristics and resistance to damage by pests and diseases. Conclusions. Modern hemp varieties are able to form a crop straw, fiber and seeds within 6.0–11.5; 1.7–2.5 and 0.6–1.2 t/ha, respectively, for the minimum content or complete absence of the main component of cannabinoids – THC.
Keywords: local and breeding varieties, monoecious and dioecious hemp, crop capacity, non-narcotic sign.