Microwave influence on the position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster Meig.
Aim. The purpose of investigation was to study the effect of microwave irradiation of different intensity on the manifestation of the position effect variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster Meig. Methods. Experiments were carried out on mutant strain In(1)wm4, y. Microwave radiation with frequency 36.64 GHz and power density 0.01; 0.1 and 1 W/m2, was used. Exposure to microwaves was applied in early embryogenesis after 2-hour oviposition. Exposure time was 30 sec. PEV was examined in the irradiated and non-irradiated (control) flies. Results. In females, microwave irradiation at a power density of 1 W/m2 led to an enhance in the inactivation of the white+ gene transferred into a vicinity of pericentric heterochromatin in the X-chromosome. No effect was detected by irradiation intensity of 0.01 and 0.1 W/m2. In males, there was a suppression of genetic inactivation at a power density of 0.01 W/m2. Conclusions. Microwave irradiation can affect the size of heterochromatin blocks that cause gene silencing in PEV. The effect depends on the sex and intensity of the radiation.
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster Meig., position effect variegation, heterochromatin, gene silencing, non-ionising radiation.
WHO International EMF Project. 1997. URL: www.who.int/entity/peh-emf/en (Last accessed: 21.02.2018).
WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2011. Press Release No. 208, 31 May.
Kryukov V.I. Genetic effects of electromagnetic fields. Journal of New Medical Technologies. 2000. Vol. 7, No 2. P. 8–13.
Prokofyeva-Belgovskaya A.A. Heterochromatic regions of chromosomes. Moscow: Nauka, 1986. 431 p.
Weiler K., Wakimoto B. Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila. Annu. Rev. Genet. 1995. Vol. 29 (1). P. 577–605. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ge.29.120195.003045. PMID 8825487.
Zhimulev I.F. Position effect variegation. Soros Educational Journal. 2001. Vol. 7, No. 1. P. 4–9.
Elgin S.C.R., Reuter G. Position-effect variegation, heterochromatin formation, and gene silencing in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013. Vol. 5 (8): a017780. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017780.
Cooper K.W. Cytogenetic analysis of major heterochromatic elements (especially Xh and Y) in Drosophila melanogaster and the theory of “heterochromatin”. Chromosoma. 1959. Vol. 10. P. 535–588.
Atramentova L.A., Utevskaia O.M. Statistics for biologists. Kharkiv: NTMT Publishing House, 2014. 331 p.
Muller H.J. Types of visible variations induced by X-rays in Drosophila. J. Genet. 1930. Vol. 22. P. 299–334.
Tartof K.D., Bishop С., Jones M., Hobbs C.A., Locke J. Towards an understanding of position effect variegation. Genesis. 1989. Vol. 10 (3). P. 162–173.
Zhimulev I.F., Belyaeva E.S., Fomina O.V., Protopopov M.O., Bolshakov V.N. Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1986. Vol. 94. P. 492–504.
Shakina L.A., Pasiuga V.N., Dumin O.M., Shckorbatov Yu.G. Effects of microwaves on the puffing pattern of D. melanogaster. Cent. Eur. J. Biol. 2011. Vol. 6 (4). P. 524–530.
Dyka L.D., Shakina L.A., Strashnyuk V.Yu., Shckorbatov Yu.G. Effects of 36.6 GHz and static magnetic field on degree of endoreduplication in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Inter. J. Radiat. Biol. 2016. Vol. 92. P. 222–227. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2016.1137105.
Shckorbatov Yu.G., Pasiuga V.N., Kolchigin N.N., Grabina V.A., Batrakov D.O., Kalashnikov V.V., Ivanchenko D.D., Bykov V.N. The influence of differently polarised microwave radiation on chromatin in human cells. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2009. Vol. 85 (4). P. 322–329.
Shckorbatov Y. The main approaches of studying the mechanisms of action of artificial electromagnetic fields on cell. J. Electr. Electron. Syst. 2014. Vol. 3 (2). P. 123. doi: 10.4172/2332-0796.1000123.
Skamrova G.B., Lantushenko A.O., Shckorbatov Yu.G., Evstigneev M.P. Influence of mobile phone radiation on membrane permeability and chromatin state of human buccal epithelium cells. Biochemsitry and Biophysics. 2013. Vol. 1 (2). P. 22–28.