Efficiency of the use of mutations, induced on radiation-contaminated areas, when improving winter wheat cultivars

  • R. A. Yakymchuk


Aim. Breeding of Triticum aestivum L. cultivars requires the development of generically diversified primary material. Induced mutagenesis plays an important role in the solution of the issue.  Mutagenic activity of radionuclide contaminations of the alienation zone of ChNPP and industrial facilities of uranium manufacture was studied to determine the efficiency of their use when developing the material of winter wheat which is valuable for breeding. Methods. The selection of mutants was done using the methods of recording and singling out of visible mutations, phenological observations, analysis of biometric indicators, determination of total yield capacity and its components. Results. Chronic effect of the radiation of radionuclide contaminations of the alienation zone of ChNPP and the territory of uranium ore mining results in the increase of mutation variability of winter wheat by 8–14.9 and 9.8–12.6, respectively. Mutation spectrum included 24.29–49.34 % of those valuable for breeding. Productive mutants, which exceeded primary cultivars in crop capacity by 2.7–6.9 %, were developed. Mutant samples, whose high yield capacity was supplemented with grain quality enhancement or its maintenance at the level of a primary form, were identified. Conclusions. The expansion of genetic variety of primary breeding material due to mutagenesis, induced by radionuclide contaminations, creates the opportunities for its use in hybridization aimed at the implementation of breeding-genetic programs of the improvement of wheat cultivars.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., radionuclide contamination, mutation variability, valuable for breeding mutations, productive forms.


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