Results of theoretical research and their application in sunflower breeding
Investigations into the effect of heterosis in sunflower became possible as a result of longterm studies on the different source material, but the complete incarnation of researches results have taken place in the last 30 years owing to the discovery of cytoplasmic male sterility by P. Leclerc. Wide propagation of this culture was caused by active application of sunflower oil in food production so needed for all mankind. Hybrid seed market became filled with new developments of scientific institutions and companies. Agricultural enterprises in Ukraine are a fertile ground for introduction of innovations from around the world. In this space there is a place for domestic breeding, which has been advancing even during the economic crisis. Classic and new breeding methods allowed creating lines and hybrids resistant to the main diseases and pests, showing improved oil quality enriched with acids, vitamins and tocopherols. 2013 showed that new sunflower hybrids created at the Institute of NAAS reach yield 4 t/ha, not only on experimental fields, but in agricultural enterprises as well. New methods of PCR analysis are firmly entering into the area of breeding, revealing its considerable potential.
Key words: sunflower, heterosis, breeding, biotic factors, hybrids, lines, theoretical research , diversification, fatty acids, adaptation, industrial seed.