Genetic and epigenetic determinants of radiation carcinogenesis
Due to the negative consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the problem of radiogenic cancer is extremely important. Genomic instability has a decisive role in the initiation of radiation carcinogenesis. The genetic and epigenetic determinants underlying cancer of radiation genesis were detailed thus arguing the substantiated search for markers of increased carcinogenic risk. Several studies have indicated the uncertainty in the assessment of carcinogenic risk arising from the exposure of the human body to small doses of ionizing radiation. The radiation-induced inactivation of tumor suppressors’ genes occurs through the formation of deletions and activation of proto-oncogenes – point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements. It is suggested that the latter play more important role in the development of radiation carcinogenesis. Increase in the individual radiation sensitivity at the genetic level as compared to the average population indices is a factor of increased cancer risk. In this regard, it is advisable to conduct the long-term cytogenetic monitoring by using G2-radiation sensitivity assay among the residents of contaminated territories in Ukraine.
Keywords: ionizing radiation, radiation carcinogenesis, genetic and epigenetic determinants, oncogenes, chromosomes, individual radiation sensitivity.