Allelic polymorphism of gene receptors that are activated by proliferators of peroxisomes (PPAR) and their coactivator (PPARGC1B) among athletes of different sports
Aim. With view to find associations of molecular genetic markers of hereditary predisposition to high physical performance in various sports, the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of gene polymorphisms for α and ɣ-receptors that are activated by peroxisome proliferators, β-coactivator gene of ɣ-receptor that is activated by peroxisome proliferator, among athletes in various sports were determined. Methods. Using PCR followed by restriction fragment length analysis C → G2528 polymorphism of the 7th intron of the gene PPARA, Pro12 → Ala polymorphism of the gene PPARG, Ala203 → Pro polymorphism of the gene PPARGC1B among 249 athletes in different sports and 318 people who have no experience of regular exercise were determined. Results. It was found that the frequency of Pro/Pro genotype (PPARG) in a group of athletes who specialize in subjects with prevailed development of endurance differed by 21.8% from that of in the group of speed and power type athletes, and by 12.8% (p=0.01) from the control group, while minor allele frequency in the group of speed and power type athletes was higher by 11.2% (p=0.005). The frequency of G-allele (PPARA) in athletes who specialize in throwing athletics exceeded its incidence in the control group by 20% (p<0.05). Conclusions. Pro12 → Ala polymorphism of the PPARG gene is a marker of a high physical performance in sports. Pro-allele promotes high physical performance in sports with a prevailing manifestation of endurance, while Ala-allele – in speed and power sports. Probable differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of C → G2528 polymorphism in the 7th intron of the genes PPARA and Ala203 → Pro polymorphisms in the gene PPARGC1B among athletes and in the control group were not found.Keywords: gene polymorphisms, sports selection, genetic predisposition, molecular genetic markers, PPAR.