The perspectives of using Pelargonium sidoides hybrids

  • N. V. Nuzhyna Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University Ukraine, 01601, Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13
  • L. M. Batsmanova Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University Ukraine, 01601, Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13
  • A. M. Kosian Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University Ukraine, 01601, Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13
  • V. M. Maliarenko Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University Ukraine, 01601, Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13
  • M. M. Gaidarzhy Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University Ukraine, 01601, Kyiv, Volodymyrska str., 64/13
Keywords: phenols, flavonoids, anatomical structure, Pelargonium sidoides × reniforme


Aim. The Pelargonium sidoides DC. is a valuable medicinal plant, and its irrational use in nature may lead to the species receiving rare status in the future. Obtaining P. sidoides hybrids with a higher content of phenolic compounds will expand the range of plants used in the pharmaceutical industry and reduce the pressure on natural resources. The purpose was to improve methods of growing P. sidoides in greenhouse conditions, obtain hybrids of this species, and research them for the content of various phenolic compounds in vegetative organs. Methods. Light microscopy, spectrophotometry (determination of the total content of phenols and flavonoids, the content of phenolic antioxidants and phenolic acids). Results. The anatomical structure of the leaves and roots of the obtained hybrids did not differ significantly from those of the pure species. It has been found that growing P. sidoides and its hybrids in greenhouse conditions with high summer temperatures increase the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic substances in all vegetative organs. It is important to emphasize that high levels of flavonoids and phenol carboxylic acid have been detected in the leaves, so it is advisable to use them as raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry also. Conclusion. The cultivation methods of the studied plants have been improved. The use of hybrid plants for obtaining flavonoids is more effective for the pharmaceutical industry but less practical in getting other phenolic compounds compared to P. sidoides have been found.  The revealed difference in the localization and amount of secondary metabolites indicates the need for a detailed study of other substances of a phenolic nature in the leaves and roots of these pelargoniums. 


Abramova Ya. I., Kalynkyna H. I., Chuchalyn V. S. Razrabotka metodiki kolychestvennoho opredeleniia fenolnyh soedineniy v zhelchehonnom sbore №2. Himiia rastitelnoho syria. 2011. No. 4. P. 265–268. [in Russian]

Broun P. Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: acomplex network of conserved regulators involved in multiple aspects of differentiation in Arabidopsis. Current Opinion in Plant Biol. 2005. Vol. 8(3). P. 272–279. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2005.03.006.

Bryda O. R., Stadnytska N. E. Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera hibernica and Origanum vulgare in the pharmaceutical preparations presented on the markets of Ukraine and Poland. Pharmaceutical review. 2021. Vol. 3. P. 37–49. [in Ukrainian] doi: 10.11603/2312-0967.2021.3.12395

Caretto S., Linsalata V., Colella G., Mita G., Lattanzio V. Carbon fluxes between Primary Metabolism and Phenolic Pathway in Plant Tissues under Stress. Intern. J. of Mol. Sci. 2015. Vol. 16. P. 26378–26394. doi: 10.3390/ijms161125967.

Cheynier V., Comte G., Davies K. M., Lattanzio V., Martens S. Plant phenolics: Recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology. Plant Physiol. and Biochem. 2013. Vol. 72. Р. 1–20. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.05.009.

Dreyer L. L., Marais E. M. Section Reniformia, a new section in the genus Pelargonium (Geraniaceae). South African Journal of Botany, 2000. Vol. 66(1), P. 44–51. doi: 10.1016/S0254-6299(15)31050-4.

Elfalleh W., Hannachi H., Tlili N., Yahia Ya., Nasri N., Ferchichi A. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel, seed, leaf and flower. J. Med. Plants Res. 2012. Vol. 6. P. 4724–4730. doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.995.

Gaidarzhy M. M., Holubenko A. V., Nuzhyna N. V., Futorna O. A., Senchylo O. O. Ontogenesis of Pelargonia sidoides (Geraniaceae) under greenhouse conditions. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems. 2019. Vol. 10(2). P. 159–164. doi: 10.15421/021923

Iacovelli F., Costanza G., Romeo A., Cosio T. et al. Interaction of Pelargonium sidoides compounds with Lactoferrin and SARS-CoV-2: Insights from Molecular Simulations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2022. Vol. 19. P. 52–54. doi: 10.3390/ ijerph19095254

Kamin W., Maydannik V. G., Malek F. A., Kieser M. Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in patients (aged 6-18 years old) with acute bronchitis. Acta Paediatr. 2010a. Vol. 99 (1). P. 537-543. doi: 10.1111/j.1651–2227.2009.01656.x

Kamin W., Maydannik V. G., Malek F. A., Kieser M. Efficacy and tolerability of Eps 7630 in children and adolescents with acute bronchitis - A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolld multicenter trial with an herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010b. Vol. 48(3). P. 184–191. doi: 10.5414/cpp48184.

Kamin W., Ilyenko L. I., Malek F. A., Kieser M. Treatment of acute bronchitis with EPs 7630: randomized, controlled trial in children and adolescents. Pediatrics International. 2012. Vol. 54(2). P. 219–226. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2012.03598.x

Kayser O., Lattè K., Kolodziej H., Hammerschmidt F.-J. Composition of the essential oils of Pelargonium sidoides DC. and Pelargonium reniforme Curt. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 1998. Vol. 13(3). P. 209–2012. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199805/06)13:3<209:AID-FFJ731>3.0.CO;2-U

Kolodziej H. Fascinating metabolic pools of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme, traditional and phytomedicinal sources of the herbal medicine Umckaloabo. Phytomedicine. 2007. Vol. 14(6). P. 9–17. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2006.11.021.

Lattanzio V. Phenolic Compounds: Introduction. In Handbook of Natural Products. Ed. K. G. Ramawat, J. M Merillon. Germany, Berlin Heidelber: Springer-Verlag, 2013. P. 1543–1580. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-22144-6_57.

Lewu F. B., Adebola P. O., Afolayan A. J. Commercial harvesting of Pelargonium sidoides in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Striking a balance between resource conservation and rural livelihoods. J. of Arid Environments. 2007. Vol. 70(2). P. 380–388. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.12.022

Lewu F. B., Grierson D. S., Afolayan A. J. The leaves of Pelargonium sidoides may substitute for its roots in the treatment of bacterial infections. Biological Conservation. 2006. Vol. 128(4). P. 582–584. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.018

Maidannyk V. G. Application extract Рelargonium sidoides in pediatric patients. Mizhnarodnyi J. pediatrii, akusherstva ta hinekolohii. 2016. Vol. 10(2-3). P. 29–43.

Maree J. E., Viljoen A. M. Phytochemical distinction between Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme — A quality control perspective. South African J. of Botany. 2012. Vol. 82. P. 83–91. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2012.07.007.

Moyo M., van Staden J. Medicinal properties and conservation of Pelargonium sidoides DC. J. of Ethnopharmacology. 2014. Vol. 152. P. 243–255. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.009.

Sibhatullina H. V., Khaiertdinova L. R., Humierova Ye. A., Akulov A. N., Kostiukova Yu. A., Nikonorova N. A., Rumiantseva N. I. Metody opredelenyia redoks–statusa kultiviruemykh kletok rastenii. Kazan: Kazanskii (Privolzhskii) Federalnyi universitiet, 2011. 61 p. [in Russian]

Romeis B. Mikroskopische technik [Microscopic technique]. München, R. Oldenbourg. 1948. [in German].

Theisen L. L., Muller C. P. EPs® 7630 (Umckaloabo®), an extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research. 2012 . Vol. 94(2). P. 147–156. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.03.006

Trineeva O. V., Slivkin A. I., Voropaeva S. S. Development and validation of a technique of quantitative definition flavonoids in nettle leaves a two-blast furnace. Vestnik VGU, Himiya, Biologiya, Farmaciya. 2014. Vol. 1. P. 138–144. [in Russian]

Wynberg R., van Niekerk J., Kozanayi W., Laird S. Formalisation and the non-timber forest product sector: experiences from southern Africa. Report. Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia. 2012. 64 p.

Zagoskina N. V., Olienichenko N. A., Yunvei Ch., Zhyvukhina E. A. Sposobnost razlichnykh sortov pshenytsy (Triticum aestivum L.) k obrazovaniiu fenolnykh soedinienii. Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiolohiia. 2005. 41. P. 113-116. [in Russian]