Принципы эволюционной и адаптационной значимости организации видовых геномов и их использование в селекции
Aims. The study of the genetic aspects of speciation and adaptation, wich was conducting by me for about 40 years, revealed a number of genetic parameters that distinguish evolutionarily labile species (speciation generators) and evolutionary conservative species (terminal units phylogenetic chains). Results. Identified parameters of structural and functional organization of the genome in the generators speciation species and the inert (conservative) species in terms of speciation characterize evolutionary heteropotention species genomes and nonequivalence species in relation to natural selection, and probably to the artificial selection in breeding. Conclusions. In breeding work should be preferred species (among closely related groups), having the following parameters: a smaller number of chromosomes, low levels of recombination, high intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism, on chromosome heterochromatin dispersed and mobile genetic elements, the presence of diffuse chromocenters.
Key words: speciation, adaptation, selection, genome organization.