Мобілізація генетичних ресурсів Malus spp. для селекційно-генетичного вдосконалення декоративних сортів яблуні

  • А. І. Опалко
  • А. В. Конопелько
  • О. А. Опалко


Aim. The necessity of ordering Malus spp. collection one of the most valuable genus of woody fruit and ornamental crop in the world and domestic horticulture is caused with the requirement of search and selection of sources and donor of indications in short supply for breeding particularly, all these reasons stimulated the completion of these investigations. Methods. The value of some representatives in the collection of Malus spp. were investigated with the help of conventional methods, including, we paid a lot of attention on to the flower's colour, flowering intenseness and duration, fruit attractivity, and the period when leaves are not crumbled from the tree, the crown shape of the tree, growth force, pest and diseases resistance, so as the other evidences which determine the usefulness for parks, public gardens and paths growing. Summing up the information concerning phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Malus and breeding of ornamental crabapples a lot of scientific literatures proposed for discussion were analyzed. Results. Collection of the genus Malus spp. in the National dendrological park "Sofiyivka" of NAS of Ukraine was essentially enriched during the last decade, and at the end of 2015 consisted of 30 taxonomic units of ornamental crabapples. Among the new receipts interesting for breeding are the following: M. florentina (Zucc.) C.K. Schneid., M. halliana Koehne, M. hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd., M. × purpurea (E. Barbier) Rehd., M. × spectabilis (Sol.) Borkh., M. toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, M. trilobata (Labill. ex Poir.) C.K. Schneid., M. zumi (Mats.) Rehd. and infraspecific taxa: M. coronaria (L.) Mill. ‘Red Tip’, M. × purpurea f. aldenhamensis (Gibbs.) Rend., M. × purpurea ‘Ola’, M. × purpurea ‘Royalty’, M. × purpurea ‘Selkirk’. Information as for the peculiarity of inheritance of some features during the interspecific hybridization of the apple tree is rather fragmentary and slightly confirmed by the data of hybridization analysis. That's why the definite duration guidance which breeder should use in order to select the valuable genetic sources and/or donors for attraction to breeding are rather virtual nowadays. Conclusions. At present the valuable fund of genetic resources of the genus Malus representatives is attracted into the collection of NDP "Sofiyivka", however it is mainly used as a parent for propagation of fruit trees cultivars which are demanded by the market of seedlings. The collection of cultivars, forms and species of the genus Malus spp. created during the last years can be the base for breeding the ornamental crabapples in Ukraine with the help of the suitable investment support, advertisement and corresponding staffing.

Keywords: Amygdaloideae Arn., botanical nomenclature, ornamental crabapples, family Rosaceae Juss., genetic resources.