Еволюція гормональної регуляції у грибів
Aims. Analyze literature data on the evolution of hormonal regulation in different groups of organisms: plants, animals, fungi. Identify possibilities for the use phytohormones for regulate the growth and development of higher fungi. Results. Fungal organisms have very ancient origin, so the evolution is not acquired perfect adaptations to the environment – the origin of true organs, tissues. Mushrooms do not synthesize specific (own) hormones. They produce phytohormones in quantities 100–1000 times higher than their content in higher plants. However, hormonal regulation in fungi has no clear definition. According to common evolutionary origin of hormones in different groups of organisms: plants, animals, fungi, – suggests that the physiological action of various hormones will manifest the same. In the course of our studies on the growth and development of fungi of the genus Pleurotus it was determined that plant hormones can influence almost all physiological processes in fungi, plants like: radial growth rate, tension and division of cells, biomass accumulation, biosynthetic processes, productivity and more. Conclusions. There are many similarities in those functions that perform the hormones in the plant and fungi organisms. This is probably due, primarily, with a common evolutionary origin of hormonal regulation in different groups of organisms. The practical orientation of the role of phytohormones in mushrooms is that plant growth regulators can be used in fungal biotechnology to improve the efficiency of biosynthetic processes and yield of edible fungi artificially cultivated.
Keywords: evolution, fungi, hormonal regulation, phytohormones, genus Pleurotus.