Evolutionary History of species-specific Alu repeats on the example of the MGMT gene of old world monkey

Keywords: Cercopithecidae, MGMT gene, Alu2_OG, AluJ_Mim, Alu2_TS


Aim. To analyze the evolution of species-specific Alu repeats in orthologs of the MGMT gene in Cercopithecidae. Methods. The homology between nucleotide sequences has been determined by BLAST 2.6.1 program. The results of the search and identification of MGE have been realized by CENSOR program. Results. The investigation of the orthology of the MGMT gene in Old World monkeys has shown that different species-specific Alu repeats identified in intron sequences might have different evolutionary histories and dynamics of sequence degradation. An absence of species-specific Strepsirrhini Alu repeats in the MGMT gene of representatives of tarsier and New World monkeys and their selective distribution in Old World monkeys demand much more detailed phylogenetic studies.Conclusions. The evolutionary history of species-specific Alu repeats and the peculiarities of their degradation are individual.


Ullu E., Tschudi C. Alu sequences are processed 7SL RNA genes. Nature. 1984. Vol. 312 (5990). P. 171–172.

Häsler J., Strub K. Alu elements as regulators of gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006. Vol. 34 (19). P. 5491–5497. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl706.

Deininger P. Alu elements: know the SINEs. Genome Biol. 2011. Vol. 12, № 12. P. 236.

Salem A.H., Ray D.A., Xing J., Callinan P.A., Myers J.S., Hedges D.J., Garber R.K., Witherspoon D.J., Jorde L.B., Batzer M.A. Alu elements and hominid phylogenetics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 2003. Vol. 100 (22). P. 12787–12791. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2133766100.

Schmitz, J., Noll A., Raabe C.A., Churakov G., Voss R., Kiefmann M., Rozhdestvensky T., Brosius J., Baertsch R., Clawson H., Roos C., Zimin A., Minx P., Montague M.J., Wilson R.K., Warren W.C. Genome sequence of the basal haplorrhine primate Tarsius syrichta reveals unusual insertions. Nat. Commun. 2016. Vol. 7. P. 12997. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12997.

Kapitonov V., Jurka J. The age of Alu subfamilies. J. Mol. Evol. 1996. Vol. 42 (1). P. 59–65.

McLain A.T., Carman G.W., Fullerton M.L., Beckstrom T.O., Gensler W., Meyer T.J., Faulk C., Batzer M.A. Analysis of west-ern lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) specific Alu repeats. Mob. DNA. 2013. Vol. 4 (1). P. 26. doi: 10.1186/1759-8753-4-26.

Baker J.N., Walker J.A., Vanchiere J.A., Phillippe K.R., St. Romain C.P., Gonzalez-Quiroga P., Denham M.W., Mierl J.R., Konkel M.K., Batzer M.A. Evolution of Alu subfamily structure in the Saimiri lineage of new world monkeys. Genome Biol. Evol. 2017. Vol. 9 (9). P. 2365–2376. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx172.

Konkel M.K., Walker J.A., Batzer M.A. LINEs and SINEs of primate evolution. Evol Anthropol. 2010. Vol. 19 (6). P. 236–249. doi: 10.1002/evan.20283.

Pidpala O.V., Lukash L.L. Species-specific mobile genetic elements in the gene of repair enzyme MGMT in New World mon-keys. Factors in Experimental Evolution of Organisms. 2021. Vol. 28. P. 128–134. [in Ukrainian]

Quentin Y. Origin of the Alu family: a family of Alu-like monomers gave birth to the left and the right arms of the Alu elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992. Vol. 20 (13). P. 3397–3401.

Mighell A.J., Markham A.F., Robinson P.A. Alu sequences. FEBS Lett. 1997. Vol. 417 (1). P. 1–5. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(97)01259-3.

Sotero-Caio C.G., Platt R.N., Suh A., Ray D.A. Evolution and diversity of transposable elements in vertebrate genomes. Genome Biol. Evol. 2017. Vol. 9. P. 161–177.

Perelman P., Johnson W.E., Roos C., Seuánez H.N., Horvath J.E., Moreira M.A.M., Kessing B., Pontius J., Roelke M., Rumpler Y., Schneider M.P.C., Silva A., O'Brien S.J., Pecon-Slattery J. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates. PLoS Genet. 2011. Vol. 7 (3). e1001342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001342.

Pidpala O., Lukash L. Regulatory potential of mobile genetic elements in the human MGMT gene. J. Genet. Genomic Sci. 2018. Vol. 3. P. 008–015. doi: 10.24966/GGS-2485/100008.