Adaptive abilities of corn hybrids under different irrigation modes and moisture supply in the arid Steppe of Ukraine
Aim. The study presents the results of the research on the productivity features and adaptability parameters of domestic corn hybrids under different irrigation modes and water supply under conditions of the Arid Steppe. Methods. The general scientific, special selection genetic, computational and comparative research methods were used. The research object was modern corn hybrids of domestic selection of different maturity groups. The hybrids were sown under different irrigation modes (common sprinkling, drip irrigation, sub-irrigation). Results. The retrospective analysis of the productivity of main grain crops in the area of the Arid Steppe over a 130-year period showed that the highest rates of an increase in productivity were recorded in corn. An annual increase in its productivity was 31 kg/ha per year and it was due to the use of new varieties (hybrids) and the improvement of growing techniques. Irrigation made it possible to realize potential productivity of new hybrids and increase the productivity from 6.59 to 82.3 c/ha. Productivity rose 12.5 times over a 130-year period, the annual increase being 58 kg/ha per year. Without irrigation the grain productivity was the highest in early-maturing hybrids – 3.28 and 3.05 t/ha indicating their high drought resistance. The use of these hybrids is appropriate under conditions of water-saving irrigation modes on irrigated lands with a low hydro-module and on dry massifs. A fall in the productivity under other irrigation modes was from 0.41 to 1.93 t/ha. Conclusions. Under irrigation conditions it is necessary to use corn hybrids with a genetically programmed reaction to optimal growing conditions (an optimal mode of soil moisture and mineral nutrition).
Keywords: hybrid, corn, irrigation, adaptability, drought resistance, grain, selection.
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