Induction of breeding-valuable mutations in Triticum aestivum L. under the influence of physical and chemical mutagenic factors of the environment

  • V. V. Morgun
  • R. A. Yakymchuk


Aim. The use of induced mutagenesis opens greater possibilities to drastically improve cultivated plants genetically.  The areas of local and mass anthropogenic pollution have unique conditions of the effect of mutagenic factors, and they require the studying of their possible use while developing parental material for winter wheat breeding. The induction frequency of breeding-valuable mutations in Triticum aestivum L., affected by the contamination with physical and chemical mutagenic factors of the environment, was studied. Methods. The choice of mutants was made in М2 and М3 generations, using record techniques and separating visible mutations, phonological observations, biometric indicator analysis. Results. The pollutants of the environment cause the frequency increase of breeding-valuable mutations in
T. aestivum L. by 7.5–12.5 times under the effect of the contamination with natural radioisotopes of the area of uranium ore mining, by 2.1–19.7 times – with heavy metals of industrial enterprises, and 4.1–9.8 times – with pesticides, prohibited and not suitable for use, and toxic wastes in the places of their storage. Spectrum is predominantly represented with low-grown forms, forms with intensive growth, a long-cylindrical spike, and it depends on the nature of a polluting agent and a genotype of a plant. Conclusions. The increase of frequency and the broadening of spectrum of breeding-valuable mutations, due to the induced mutagenesis with the environmental pollution, make it possible to use it for the implementation of breeding-genetic programs aimed at improving wheat cultivars.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., mutagenic factors, mutative variability, breeding-valuable mutations.


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