Enhanced tolerance of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. to the mutagenic effect of cadmium ions

  • K. V. Spiridonova Institute of molecular biology and genetics of NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine, 03143, Kyiv, Akademika Zabolotnoho str., 150
  • I. O. Andreev Institute of molecular biology and genetics of NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine, 03143, Kyiv, Akademika Zabolotnoho str., 150
  • O. M. Zahrychuk Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine, 46027, Ternopil, M. Kryvonosa str., 2
  • N. M. Drobyk Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine, 46027, Ternopil, M. Kryvonosa str., 2
  • V. A. Kunakh Institute of molecular biology and genetics of NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine, 03143, Kyiv, Akademika Zabolotnoho str., 150


Aim. To study the potential effects of different concentrations of cadmium ions on antarctic plant D. antarctica using PCR analysis. Methods. Plants were grown in vitro on B5 Gamborg and Eveleigh agar medium supplemented with CdCl2. Genetic rearrangements were studied by PCR-analysis using ISSR- and IRAP-primers. Results. Genetically identical plants of D. antarctica obtained by microclonal propagation in vitro were used for the study of mutagenic effect of cadmium ions. The influence of Cd2+ was investigated within the concentration ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM. The results of cultivation of D. antarctica plants in the presence of cadmium ions for 63 days allow to determine the concentration range that does not inhibit the growth of the plants in vitro, and it was up to 1 mM. It was found that toxicant concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mM did not cause changes in the profiles of PCR products. After growing the plants with 0.2–1 mM CdCl2 for 17 days, the changes in the profiles of PCR products, indicating the mutagenic impact, were observed at concentrations of 0.6 mM or above; moreover, the number of changes increased in dependence on the concentration of heavy metal. Prolonged influence (140-265 days) of cadmium ions in relatively low concentrations (0.1 mM and 0.4 mM) did not cause detectable mutations. Conclusions. D. antarctica, a plant extremophile, which has evolved mechanisms of resistance to a variety of extreme conditions as a result of adaptation to the existence in the harsh conditions of Antarctica, shows enhanced resistance to cadmium ions in comparison with other species of vascular plants. Inhibition of growth occurs at Cd2+ concentrations of 0.1 mM or above, whereas concentrations of 1 mM or above cause cessation of growth and death of plants. Mutagenic effect on D. antarctica was observed at Cd2+ concentrations of above 0.4 mM. After prolonged growth of plants (for 3–8 months) at cadmium ions concentrations of 0.1–0.4 mM, genetic changes was not found.

Keywords: Deschampsia antarctica Desv., plants in vitro obtained by microclonal propagation, cadmium ions, mutagenic effect, PCR-analysis.


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